Municipal fiber - where a locality builts the infrastructure - then opens if up for service providers to build on top of it, available on a neutral basis to any operator, leading to a vibrant market for connectivity. Cities that do this: "Stockholm, Palo Alto, Rockport, Maine, and the tiny, highly-conservative town of Ammon, Idaho "
"What do Stockholm, Palo Alto, Rockport, Maine, and the tiny, highly-conservative town of Ammon, Idaho have in common? Answer: they all have dark fiber networks — thin, flexible strands of glass that are capable of carrying an unlimited amount of information in the form of pulses of light, but haven’t yet been “lit” by the electronics that trigger lasers to create those pulses and transmit them through the glass. Independent operators with access to these passive, dark networks provide their own electronics, creating a competitive, diverse, and choice-filled marketplace for unlimited-capacity, symmetrical (equal upload to download) high-speed Internet access. "